EBOLA~Know Why the Dog (and other animals) is Part of this Conversation

I would have never thought that I would have to be concerned about such deadly viruses, usually associated with 3rd world countries, as we are facing today; this seriously reminds me of a B-grade sci-fi movie, like that walker (Zombie) flick (there’s several-take your pick including first rate Walking Dead on AMC) ALL searching for a cure but that’s become a reality and exactly what’s going on right now-There’s no vaccine to prevent this although, the United States holds the patent for Ebola*. But that’s what’s happening and apparently there is a fear that animals could be carriers without showing signs of the disease itself; the possibly is still unknown at this time…Maybe this is part of an AR propaganda but came across this concerning animals and Ebola and figured I’d share it…Me and Rover are very attached to each other and will remain side by side…Ebola in humans reminds me of parvo in dogs-Rover is vaccinated against that!!!

As a dog owner I am alarmed that the dog in Spain owned by an Ebola victim was euthanized and the one in the US is in quarantine (I sure hope that’s going better than the quarantine for people-Obviously, that’s not been so great!!! Pretty pathetic actually. and isn’t Dallas Animal Services the ones that left a cat to die in a wall?!? ekkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk) So what’s really going on?!?

http://www.akcchf.org/news-events/news/ebola-understanding-why-the-dog-is-in-the-conversation.html

Ebola: Understanding Viral Transmission, Pathogenesis and Why the Dog is Part of the Conversation

In the news recently there have been reports of three health care workers, one in Spain and two in the United States, who have been diagnosed with Ebola virus. Two of these women are also dog owners.  The dog in Spain was euthanized in the interest of public health. The dog in the United States is currently quarantined.

To better understand why dogs are part of the conversation and why these two countries reacted differently, a better understanding of Ebola virus is necessary.

Viruses are ranked on a biosafety level (BSL) scale from 1 – 4, with 4 being the most severe. Ebola is a BSL4 pathogen, for which there are no approved therapeutics or vaccines. The virus is transmitted from one individual to another through the exchange of bodily fluids and enters the body through exposed cuts or mucous membranes, such as an individual’s mouth or nose.

Public health officials are concerned about the role of dogs in Ebola virus transmission because there is scientific evidence that another mammal, the bat, is a reservoir for the disease. A reservoir host is one that carries the virus, is asymptomatic (displaying no symptoms of infectious virus), and that transmits the disease to humans or to other animals.

Based upon a research study in 2005 we know that feral dogs in African villages where there have been large scale epidemics seroconvert to Ebola. Seroconversion means the dogs have been exposed to virus and have produced antibodies specific for Ebola virus. Seroconversation does not imply production of infectious virus that can be transmitted to people or other animals. In other words, this study indicates that Ebola virus breached the dog’s mucosal barrier, was recognized by the canine immune system as being foreign and the body responded by producing anti-Ebola antibodies. In this study, dogs were described as being asymptomatic, and there was no evidence that virus was transmitted between dogs or from dogs to any other host.

In summary, there is currently no evidence that exposed dogs become productively infected and shed Ebola virus. So while there have been documented cases in Africa where dogs are exposed and respond to this exposure by producing anti-Ebola antibodies, there has been no evidence that the dogs infect people or other animals. Because there are unknowns in the Ebola chain of transmission, public health officials in Spain erred on the side of caution and chose to humanely euthanize the dog. In the United States, public officials have quarantined the dog in order to monitor him and perhaps arrive at a better understanding of what role, if any, the dog may have in the chain of transmission.

Help make strides in canine immunology and infectious disease research by supporting the work of the AKC Canine Health Foundation. Your donation will help researchers find better treatments and more accurate diagnoses that not only impact our dogs, but impact humans as well.

Fact Sheet

What is Ebola?

Ebola is a lipid enveloped, filamentous, negative-sense virus with an RNA genome. The virus is transmitted from one individual to another through exchange of bodily fluids and enters through exposed cuts or mucous membranes (mouth, nose, etc.).

What does all this scientific jargon mean?

“Lipid enveloped”:

Lipid enveloped viruses contain a lipid bilayer coat (outer membrane of a cell) that protects their genome and helps them enter (infect) cells. The lipid bilayer of Ebola is composed of the same lipids as human cells and scientists believe this lipid coat may be extracted from lipid rafts of human cells as new virions “bud” or leave cells after intracellular expansion of the virus. Contained within the lipid bilayer of Ebola are virus proteins that help the virus infect new cells and contribute to its replication. All together, the lipid bilayer performs three functions, 1) to cloak the virus from the immune system because it closely resembles normal host cells, 2) to facilitate binding of virus to cells and entry in lipid-to-lipid interactions, and 3) to facilitate viral replication.

“Negative-sense RNA”:

Mammalian genetic code is DNA to RNA to protein. There are multiple forms of RNA synthesized by mammalian cells, and it is the messenger form of RNA, abbreviated as mRNA, that is translated into protein. Unlike mammals, some viruses (such as Ebola) use RNA rather than DNA as their genetic code. RNA viruses are further classified according to the “sense” or polarity of their RNA.  Positive-sense viral RNA is similar to mammalian mRNA and as a result can be immediately translated by the host cell after infection into viral protein. Negative-sense viral RNA is the mirror image of mRNA, consequently it must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an enzyme called RNA polymerase before translation into protein. As such purified RNA of a negative-sense virus is not infectious by itself and needs to be transcribed into positive-sense RNA to make viral protein that can be assembled into new, infectious virus particles. The Ebola genome encodes seven proteins named nucleoprotein, VP24, VP30, VP35, L protein, transmembrane glycoprotein and the matrix protein VP40.

Viral Replication and Infectivity:

Viruses are unique pathogens in that they use host cell machinery to make their viral proteins and assemble new virus particles, or virions. In other words, they carry their genetic blueprint with them but have the cell they infect do all production and assembly of new virions. Conceptually, they hijack cellular factories in order to replicate. In order for Ebola to infect and replicate it must be able to accomplish two things: it must enter a host cell and it must utilize host cell machinery to produce new virions that can then go on to infect the next individual. This is termed “productive infection.” In the absence of those two things Ebola infection does not spread and would be considered “abortive infection,” meaning the process ends because replication cannot occur. We do not know if canine cells can be invaded by Ebola virus and we do not know if Ebola can hijack the cellular machinery of canine cells to make new virus particles.

Pathogenesis of Ebola:

The cause, or pathogenesis of disease is not completely understood. In humans the virus targets and replicates within cells of the immune system, including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Using these cells for transport, the virus disseminates to lymph nodes, liver and spleen. From there the virus expands to other cell types including endothelial cells (cells that line the blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver cells) and adrenal cells. Ebola virus subverts immune system function and disables the primary anti-viral machinery of immune cells by inhibiting the type I interferon response system. In contrast, the virus strongly activates the inflammatory response, inducing excessive release of proinflammatory mediators (known as cytokines) that contribute to dysregulation of coagulation (blood clotting), endothelial barrier integrity, systemic inflammation, and ultimately multiorgan failure and death. It is this excessive inflammation that causes the symptoms of disease: gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, hemorrhage from mucous membranes, fever, neurologic dysfunction and shock.

Are dogs part of the chain of transmission of virus?

Infectious virus must be produced in a sufficient quantity and be provided a method of transport in order to be spread from host to host. Based on other better established viral transmission models, we know that viral amplification in an intermediate host is a prerequisite for transmission. As mentioned above, we do not know if the dog’s intracellular machinery can support viral replication, packaging and formation of infectious viral particles, nor do we know how the dog might shed virus for transmission to another host if it is asymptomatic. Extensive research is necessary to answer this question. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) is currently working on recommendations for handling, testing and treatment of companion animals associated with human cases, and that information will be forthcoming.

References:

1) Clinical features and pathobiology of Ebolavirus infection. Ansari, AA. J Autoimmun. 2014 Sep 23. epub ahead of print.

2) Membrane binding and bending in Ebola VP40 assembly and egress. Stahelin, RV. Front Microbiol. 2014 Jun 18;5:300.

3) Ebola virus antibody prevalence in dogs and human risk.. Allela L, Boury O, Pouillot R, Délicat A, Yaba P, Kumulungui B, Rouquet P, Gonzalez JP, Leroy EM. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Mar;11(3):385-90.

________________________________

*more references that might be of interest:

http://www.westernjournalism.com/u-s-government-patented-ebola/

U.S. Government Patented Ebola! Why?

Who has the most to gain by a worldwide outbreak of Ebola? Whoever can sell a solution to the problem, right? And just who might that be? Global pharmaceutical companies to the rescue!

Who else might be interested in being perceived as a hero sent to rescue millions of damsels and dudes in distress? Big Government is here to protect you! And control you, because with protection comes control.

So, here we have two huge entities supposedly here helping us from outside invaders, albeit the tiniest of enemies being single cell viruses, but just how outside are they? What if I were to tell you that one of those big ‘helper’ entities actually had a patent on Ebola? Sound far-fetched? One guess which of the two big happy helpers it is. Drug companies, right? …Wrong. It’s big government. Specifically, The United States of America.

Before you dismiss this as far-fetched or even impossible, just run a simple free patent search under the keyword ‘Ebola’. Not only will you see that Uncle Sam owns the patent on Ebola, but they also own the rights to all variations on Ebola, with the rights to all Ebola research. The official owner of this Ebola patent is: The Government of the US as Represented by the Secretary of the Dept. of Health. Essentially, it is a patent issued by The United States government to The United States government.

Please, look up U.S. patent number 20120251502, and then read the rest of this article—if you dare.

…Now you know what very few people know–that Ebola is not only able to be patented, but that patent is owned by the U.S. government! So ask yourself one question: What word is synonymous with patentable creations or inventions? …You guessed it: Inventors.

So is it possible that Ebola was actually invented?

Regardless of whether or not the original Ebola virus was a government invented germ biological warfare agent or whether the current Ebola virus is a variation of the original virus, one thing is for sure: this current strain of Ebola appears to have the potential of killing millions—if not billions—of people.

So if and when the dynamic duo of big government and big pharma announce that they have a vaccine or antidote to Ebola, should we trust them enough to let them inject their liquid solution into our tender, trusting arms?

Never mind the fact that even the Centers for Disease Control admitted that they had 10 to 30 million polio vaccines that they said may have been contaminated with SV-40 polyomavirus, a major suspected cancer agent. What is the choice we are given? Ebola or a big government, big pharma vaccine? Talk about being stuck between a rock and a hard place. More like being stuck with a sharp prick.

Of course, a likely scenario will be the government announcing they are approving a fast-tracked vaccine by some pharmaceutical company that got a special government waiver from all liability since the wonder drug company worked day and night to come up with a solution to a global pandemic. And we certainly wouldn’t want to leave big pharma liable for hurting us in any way or allowing other time released scourges embedded within the solution.

To be continued…

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http://www.thenewage.co.za/138211-1021-53-Pet_animals_become_victims_of_Ebola_scare_in_Ivory_Coast

Pet Animals Become Victims of Ebola Scare In Ivory Coast

From monkeys to big cats, people in Ivory Coast like to keep wild animals as pets but are now rethinking the custom with the deadly Ebola virus sweeping neighbouring countries.

A visit to the zoo in the economic capital Abidjan quickly demonstrated the concerns. The institution has begun to take in animals abandoned by owners, aware that wild beasts can be vectors of the highly contagious haemorrhagic fever.

The green cages in one section of the zoo have filled up with abandoned or donated animals, but nobody is allowed to visit them since the area is a quarantine zone.

Behind the bars of one cage, monkeys chattered, grunted and gesticulated with excitement. A sign makes it clear that none carry the virus, but they have nonetheless been isolated to prevent possible contamination.

Julie, a two-year-old chimpanzee, showed off and scampered around, asking to be petted. Charlotte, a red baboon, leapt frantically around the cage. Louise, a medium-sized monkey with a white belly and nose, sat stoically on a bar amid the racket. The two males sharing the cage were new and had yet to be named.

– ‘An animal spreading panic’ –

Pet animals become victims of Ebola scare in Ivory Coast
The green cages in one section of the zoo have filled up with abandoned or donated animals, but nobody is allowed to visit them since the area is a quarantine zone. Picture: Getty Images

From monkeys to big cats, people in Ivory Coast like to keep wild animals as pets but are now rethinking the custom with the deadly Ebola virus sweeping neighboring countries.

A visit to the zoo in the economic capital Abidjan quickly demonstrated the concerns. The institution has begun to take in animals abandoned by owners, aware that wild beasts can be vectors of the highly contagious hemorrhagic fever.

The green cages in one section of the zoo have filled up with abandoned or donated animals, but nobody is allowed to visit them since the area is a quarantine zone.

Behind the bars of one cage, monkeys chattered, grunted and gesticulated with excitement. A sign makes it clear that none carry the virus, but they have nonetheless been isolated to prevent possible contamination.

Julie, a two-year-old chimpanzee, showed off and scampered around, asking to be petted. Charlotte, a red baboon, leapt frantically around the cage. Louise, a medium-sized monkey with a white belly and nose, sat stoically on a bar amid the racket. The two males sharing the cage were new and had yet to be named.

– ‘An animal spreading panic’ –

The youngest arrival, a small red monkey about 30 centimeters (almost one foot) tall, came to the zoo at the beginning of September in circumstances that highlight the fear of Ebola.

The disease has killed almost 1,800 people across closed borders in neighboring Liberia and Guinea alone and a total 2,600 in the four countries where the disease has hit,  including Sierra Leone and Nigeria.

The zoo’s vet, Daouda Soro, said that he had been summoned in haste to Abidjan’s military hospital to deal with “an animal who was spreading panic”. When he got there, he found a “very small (monkey) who was sleepy but shivering with hunger”.

“It was above all Ebola that caused the panic,” Soro told AFP.

As for Charlotte, she was abandoned on the street by her owner. Informed of her endangered state by passersby, Soro sped to the scene to find the baboon surrounded by people armed with “stones and clubs (who) wanted to kill her”, he said.

Three weeks later, the three-year-old female was clearly doing much better. Whenever her caretaker Charles Aby Yapi turned his back, Charlotte confidently set about normal primate behavior trying to pick fleas and ticks off him.

The newcomers “are not aggressive,” Yapi said with a smile. The only employee authorized to look after quarantined animals, he wears gloves in the cages and systematically washes his boots in disinfectant.

Even if they are not carrying the Ebola virus, the beasts taken in by the zoo could be infected with a range of diseases, and at risk of contaminating other animals.

“As soon as we can, we’ll put the (isolated arrivals) in the zoo” with their own kind, said deputy director Richard Champion, who specified that “the length of quarantine depends on the species.”

Strident howls suddenly erupted during the visit. Julie was calling for help. The chilly chimpanzee took fright when Yapi vanished out of sight after putting her in a more comfortable cage so that she could spend the night in a blanket.

– ‘Ebola doesn’t hide in bushes’ –

“We have already had to turn down about 10 animals” for lack of space in the quarantine zone and in compliance with strict regulations, Soro said.

Instead, advice is being made available to pet owners so that they can go on looking after their monkeys until there is more room in quarantine and places become free.

However, the situation could rapidly worsen if a case of Ebola is diagnosed in Ivory Coast. “That would certainly create panic. So people will abandon their animals,” zoo director Samouka Kane said.

The number of beasts people might then want to drop off at the zoo would grow exponentially because domesticating wild animals for company is a widely established practice.

Most animals in the zoo, apart from the elephant but including the leopard, have already been donated by people who no longer wanted to keep such pets at home once they were full-grown, Champion said.

Visitors benefit from the range of wildlife, but ever fewer people have been coming to the zoo since there is widespread but mistaken concern that any wild beast might be a carrier of Ebola.

Researchers worldwide have postulated that the fruit bat is a primary vector that may have passed on the disease to forest antelopes and primates, popularly eaten in many African countries as “bush meat”, but there are no certainties.

Kane recalled how one woman who entered the zoo “on tiptoe” panicked and told him how she was “looking everywhere” to try to spot the virus.

“I told her that Ebola doesn’t hide in the bushes,” he said with a laugh. “Nor in the eyes of an animal.”

_____________

Disclaimer connected to this blog…Things said are of my opinion and the opinions of others…Stay tuned  -B

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~ by topcatsroar on October 18, 2014.

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